Fix: IRB pasting is super slow, typing in ruby debugger has lag

After numerous hours spent trying unsuccessfully to fix this problem by following the instructions outlined on a few StackOverflow posts, Jordan presented a recipe for fixing this problem (that actually fixed the problem) today.

The essence of the issue is that the readline package that gets installed with REE is by default some bastard version that lags, at least on our Ubuntu and Mint installations. Installing the rvm readline package did not fix it for either of us, nor did an assortment of experiments on compiling REE with different options. Here’s what did:

$> sudo apt-get remove libreadline6-dev
$> sudo apt-get install libreadline-gplv2-dev
$> rvm remove ree
$> rvm install ree

One problem you may encounter is that if you’re avoiding newer versions of Ubuntu until admit defeat about Unity, the “libreadline-gplv2-dev” package is by default only present in Oneiric and above. Here’s where I found the package versions that worked with Maverick: After downloading the packages from this link, the install sequence became

$> sudo apt-get remove libreadline6-dev libreadline5
$> sudo dpkg -i libreadline5_5.2-9~maverick0_amd64.deb
$> sudo dpkg -i libreadline-gplv2-dev_5.2-9~maverick0_amd64.deb
$> rvm remove ree
$> rvm install ree

Create a Custom Thumbnail Processor in Carrierwave

The latest in my of “shouldn’t this be better covered in Google and docs if people really use CarrierWave?”-series. Creating a custom thumbnail processor in Carrierwave is pretty straightforward, but not from any search query I could construct. The gist:

class MyUploader < CarrierWave::Uploader::Base
  version :custom_thumbnail do
    process :some_fancy_processing

  def some_fancy_processing
    # Here our context is the CarrierWave::Uploader object, so we have its full
    # assortment of methods at our disposal.  Let's say we want to open an image with
    # openCV and smooth it out.  That would look something like:
    cv_image = OpenCV::CvMat.load *([ self.full_cache_path ]) # See past blog post on the origins of full_cache_path

    # The key to telling CW what data this thumb should use is to save our output to
    # the current_path of the Uploader, a la

Just call #custom_thumbnail.url on your Uploader instance, and you should get the path to the custom result you created.

Using this framework you should be able to get CW to perform whatever sort of custom image processing you want. Thanks to these fellows for helping me decode the #current_path magic here.

Howto: Store a CarrierWave File Locally After Uploading to S3

Have now needed to do this twice, and both times have required about an hour of sifting through Google morass to figure out how to pull this off. The situation we’re assuming here is that you have some CarrierWave file that you’ve stored to a remote location, and you want to get a copy of that file locally to manipulate it. With promising method names like “retrieve_from_cache!” and “cache!” and “move_to_cache” you too may become entangled in the maze of what the hell you’re supposed to be calling to accomplish this. Here’s what.

Step 1: Retrieve from your store (the external place your file exists) to cache (your local machine).


After running that, if you call


You should get a long string that is the filename for the file that got cached. Note that the cache status of a file is only saved on a per-object basis, so if you try something like


… you will never again see the object that did the caching, and you will never be able to use that cache. Only call #cache_stored_file! on an object you are keeping around.

Step 2: Go access the file that you cached. Not quite as easy as it sounds. For this, I mixed in the following into my uploader class

module CarrierWave::Uploader::Cache
	def full_cache_path

So now when you call


You’ll get the full pathname to the file you downloaded.

Hope this helps save someone else from an hour of Google hell.

Ruby debugger list local variables

Short and sweet. You want to list local variables in ruby-debug? Try

info locals

You can also get ruby-debug to list your stack, instance variables, and much more. Type in plain old “info” into debugger to see a full list of what ruby-debug is willing to reveal to you.

EC2 vs. Heroku vs. Blue Box Group for Rails Hosting

Not to kick a company when it’s (literally) down, but today’s 12+ hours EC2 outage has finally driven me to write a blog post I’ve been holding in my head for several months now: comparing a few of the major players within today’s Rails hosting ecosystem. In this post, I’ll compare and contrast EC2, Heroku, and Blue Box Group. I’ve chosen these three not only because of their popularity, but also because I believe each has a value proposition distinct from the other two, which which makes each ideally suited for different types of customers. In the interests of full disclosure, we are a current Blue Box Group customer, but we have spent a great deal of time looking at our choices, and I think that all have their advantages in specific situations. The facts and opinions below are the result of weighing data gleaned from Googling, popular opinion, and three years running a Rails site that has grown to serve more than 2m uniques per month.

Heroku vs. EC2 vs. Blue Box Group, Round 1: Price

Let’s start by establishing a pricing context. We’ll use a dedicated (not-shared resource/virtual) 8 GB, 8 core server with 1TB bandwidth as our baseline, since it is available across all three services (with some caveats, mentioned below).

Heroku EC2 (High-CPU XL) BBG
Dedicated 8-Core Server with 8 GB $800.00 $490.00 $799.00*
1 TB Bandwidth $0.00 $125.00 $0.00
Total $800.00 $615.00-695.00** $799.00

* In the case of BBG, their most current prices aren’t on their pricing page. They should fix that.

** This doesn’t include I/O costs for Amazon EBS. While these are fairly impossible to predict (varying greatly from app to app), it sounds from Amazon like you’d be talking about something more than $40 for this. Give that we’re comparing a “high end machine” here, perhaps $80 might be a more accurate estimate, that would make the price more like $700.

Various minor approximations were made to try to get this as close to apples-to-apples as possible, but the biggest caveat is that the Heroku instance (Ika) only has about 25% the CPU as the EC2 and BBG instances (though it has the same amount of memory. They don’t configure their DBs with comparable CPU muscle). The next highest Heroku instance (Zilla) is $1600 per month, and more comparable to the other two in terms of CPU, but has twice as much memory as they do. Note that EC2 and BBG make offer discounts when committing to a year of service — I couldn’t find a comparable offer from Heroku, which is not to say that it doesn’t exist (readers?). These discounts typically range from 10-25% off the no-commitment price.

Heroku vs. EC2 vs. Blue Box Group, Round 2: Setup

Heroku is ridiculously get started with, the runaway winner of the bunch when it comes to hitting the ground running with zero red tape. Per their homepage, all you do is run a couple rake commands and you’re in business. Even cooler, they offer a vast and useful collection of add-ons to make it easy to get started on whatever the specific thing is that you app is supposed to do.

Setting up Rails with EC2 is not quite the same walk in the park, but it’s not necessarily bad. Amazon handles configuring the OS for you, so in terms of getting your app server setup, you are essentially just getting Ruby and Rubygems installed, and letting Bundler take care of the rest. If you managed to set up your development environment in Linux or on a Mac, chances are you won’t have too much trouble using packages to fill in the gaps for other non-Ruby elements to your application (like Sphinx). When EC2 gets trickier is when you start figuring out how to integrate EBS (Amazon Elastic Block storage, necessary for data that you don’t want to disappear) and the other 20 Amazon web services that you may or may not want/need to use to run your app. It can ultimately amount to quite a research project to figure out which tools you want, which ones you need, and how to tie them all together. That said, you may end up using these tools (S3 in particular) even if you use BBG or Heroku, so that cost is not entirely unique to using EC2.

Ease of getting started on Blue Box is somewhere in between EC2 and Heroku. There is no high-tech set of tools that automatically build stuff like Heroku, but unlike EC2, you have a friendly and qualified team willing to help you get your server setup in the best possible way. In my experience, when they have setup new servers, they will ask in advance how we plan to use the server, and then automatically handle getting all of the baseline stuff we’ll need installed such that we can just focus on deploying our app. Which brings me to Round 3…

Heroku vs. EC2 vs. Blue Box Group, Round 3: What’s Best Suited for What?

For pet projects, small sites, or newly started sites, I think that hosting with Heroku is a no-brainer. You can be up and running immediately, you get a huge variety of conveniences with their add-ons, and there is a wealth of Google help behind you if you should happen to encounter an trouble, given the immense user base Heroku has managed to establish. All three of these these services can scale up available hardware within hours/minutes-not-days (yay for clouds!), but Heroku is probably the most straightforward to rapidly grow an application with their “Dynos” approach. However, given their highest cost amongst the choices, and their lower-than-BBG application-specific support, the significance of those advantages will erode as your application grows into the 10’s of thousands of monthly visitors.

I believe that EC2’s greatest selling point is its price, with its scalability and ubiquity (= generally good Googlability) being close seconds. As detailed above, on balance, EC2 tends to run 20-30% cheaper than other choices by leveraging their immense scale. Nifty features like auto-scale have the promise of making instant growth possible if you get flooded after your Oprah appearance. The trade-off for those advantages is that you will get 0 application-specific support, and even getting generic system-wide support can be hit-and-miss, as folks who suffered through today’s EC2 outage learned firsthand. Transparency is not Amazon’s strong suit at this point in their evolution, which can be a real problem if you have real customers who depend on your product and want to know when they can expect to see your website again during an outage. Also, as mentioned in the setup section, figuring out your way around the Amazon product ecosystem can be dauting at first.

I would consider EC2 the best choice for intermediate-sized businesses, particularly if 100% uptime is not imperative to their existence. EC2 is a great option for bootstrapped startups who want to get online as cheaply as possible, and are willing to put in the extra work setting up their servers in exchange for those cost savings. Also, since you will probably be unclear about what kind of resources your app is going to consume as it scales, EC2 is a great proving ground to get a sense for what kind of resources you might need if you decide to venture beyond Amazon for improved reliability and service. I would also take a long look at EC2 for huge businesses that can afford their own IT department, which diminishes the significance of EC2’s lack of application-specific support or monitoring.

While their prices are competitive with EC2, I would assert that the real differentiator with Blue Box is their focus on service. Included by default for business-sized BBG customers is 24/7 pro-active human monitoring of all services, including the ability to bring servers back online if they should happen to crash and you’re not around. Having gone through a fair number of web hosts in our day, we we have come to realize that, once you are signed up at a given host, it can be a huge pain to change. Most hosts use this knowledge to their advantage, and after a very romantic honeymoon period, become inattentive to their customer’s needs after it becomes clear the customer would be hard-pressed to move.

At Blue Box, their customer-focused attitude has not diminished a bit over time. We still regularly find them answering our questions…on the weekend…within minutes of the question being sent. Equally important, Jesse Proudman (BBG CEO) has built a team around him that gives the customer the benefit of the doubt. In more than a year of being hosted at BBG, I can not ever remember them “blaming” us for server changes we’ve made that have caused havoc (not the case at some of our past hosts). Instead, BBG has a solution-focused team that is consistently personable, reasonable, and most importantly, effective when it comes to solving tricky application and server problems.

While BBG offers small VPS instances, as well as cloud servers that can quickly scale, I consider their sweet spot to be businesses that have grown beyond the point of being able to easily maintain their server cluster themselves, but they don’t want to hire an on-staff IT guy. Or maybe they do have an IT guy, but they really need two. Over the past couple years, BBG has been our “IT guy,” working to implement systems for us ranging from a Mediawiki server, to load balancers, to Mysql master-master failover clusters. And compared to having a real IT guy on staff, the price is a huge bargain (not to mention the savings on health insurance, taxes, etc.)

Another nice benefit for those that have been stung by EC2/Heroku uptime hiccups: in 20 months with BBG, our total system downtime has been something between 1-2 hours (excluding downtime caused by our mistakes).


The best host for a particular Rails app depends on a number of factors, including phase of development (pre-launch? newly launched? rapidly growing? already huge?), need for 100% uptime, makeup of team, and cash available. Hopefully this post will be helpful to someone trying to figure out which host makes most sense for their unique situation. Please do post any questions or anecdotes from your hosting experience for future Google visitors.

Update: Response from BBG

Blue Box emailed me after this post, with a few extra details that I believe are pertinent:

  • 4 x 300GB 15k SAS outperforms EBS (which both Heroku and Amazon rely on) by almost 30% based on our client benchmarks.
  • Neither Heroku nor Amazon provide 24 x 7 monitoring with proactive human response. This can be is a *key* differentiator, particularly when comparing costs.
  • All of our dedicated database instances are running bare metal, meaning you gain consistent and reliable performance, and aren’t subject to similar massive outages caused by the muli-tenancy of a SAN.

If anyone from Amazon or Heroku would like to provide extra details of what makes them a strong choice, I’d be only too happy to post those as well.

Nokogiri Recursively Find Children/Child from a Parent

Contrary to the pages of complex hand-written recursive methods I found on StackOverflow when Googling this, it is actually as simple as

  noko = Nokogiri::XML("my_noko_file.xml")
  parent_node = noko.root.xpath("//MyNodeName")
  children_named_floyd = parent_node.xpath(".//Floyd")

If you want to search on more complex criteria, you can also add in extra sauce to your xpath.

  noko = Nokogiri::XML("my_noko_file.xml")
 # Searches your entire XML tree for an XML node type "MyNodeName" that has an attribute "id" set to a value of '1234'
 # Then grabs the XML node of type "Something" from within the found NodeSet
  parent_node = noko.root.xpath("//MyNodeName[@id='1234']").at("Something")
  # Grab all children of the "Something" node that are of type "Floyd"
  children_named_floyd = parent_node.xpath(".//Floyd")

Nokogiri is a great gem. But I do often wish it’s docs had more examples and less byzantine explanations for common operations like these. But in the meantime, let’s hope Google will continue to fill in the gaps.

Rails 3 Slave Databases: Compare Octopus to SDP

In the crazy wild days of Rails 2.x…

In the pre-Rails 3 ecosystem, there were a number of confusingly similar choices for getting master/slave database functionality established. These options included Masochism, DB Charmer, master_slave_adapter, and seamless_database_pool, amongst others. When it came time from Bonanza to make its choice on which slave plugin to use, I made my best effort to assess the velocity and functionality of each of the prominent slave database solutions, and wrote what went on to become a fairly popular post comparing the relative strengths of each choice.


Fast forward to Rails 3, and the field has narrowed considerably. Most all of the top Google results for Rails slave database options these days point to Octopus, and with good reason. Its documentation is sound, and its github project has maintained good velocity for the better part of the past year. Reading between the lines of the Octopus documentation, it would seem that it was built first and foremost as a tool to make it stupidly easy to shard databases; secondarily, it also supports using slave databases in a non-sharding format, but the implementation here gets a little more sketchy, as the examples show users needing to explicitly declare a given slave database for a particular query. In the documentation, this is done at query time, e.g.,

User.where(:name => "Thiago").limit(3).using(:slave_one)


Octopus.using(:slave_two) do
  User.create(:name => "Mike")

Seamless Database Pool

Upon learning about octopus, my natural inclination was to compare it to our current solution, seamless_database_pool. Admittedly, when we got to the Rails 3 party, SDP was running a bit behind. The author had been kind enough to do much of the legwork to get it compliant with AR3, but we still encountered errors actually trying to use the plugin within controllers and views the way we had been able to with the previous version.

So I fixed it.

What Seamless Database Pool now represents is a slave database plugin that is specifically built with the purpose of making it as easy as possible to A) connect to one or more weighted slave databases B) declare whether a particular Rails action should attempt to use slaves, masters or both (automatically defaulting to the master when write operations occur) and C) gracefully handle failover if one or more of the slave databases declared should become unavailable for whatever reason.

SDP does not have any built in support for sharding, so if that is what your DB needs, Octopus is your best bet. But if what you need is specifically a Rails 3 supported solution that will allow you to connect mix and match your main database and N number of slaves, in a weighted way and with failover automatically baked in, this is where seamless_database_pool really shines.

Bonanza has been using SDP in production for more than a year now, and in the meantime have experience failures of our slave database every few months, which at one point what have brought down the entire site. Now, within seconds, Rails figure out that it needs to re-route requests and finds a database it can use that is still available. The still-good SDP documenation describes how to make it happen.

Bottom line

Prior to writing this blog, if you Google master/slave database you would probably come away thinking there was only one solution, and that solution was only secondarily focused on allowing N slaves to be configured. I may be wrong about the level of support that Octopus already had for setting up multiple weighted failover slaves (and being able to declare usage of these on a per-action vs. per-query basis), but the documentation makes me think that this is at best a future roadmap feature. In the meantime, if it’s specifically database support you need, try the drag-and-droppable SDP gem. I will continue linking my fork of the project until the original author decides what he wants to do with my pull request (which fixes fundamental issues with Rails 3 controller integration, plus adds more robust slave failover).


Is as easy as possible. In your bundler Gemfile:

gem “seamless_database_pool”, :git => “git://”

Your database.yml file will then look something like:

  adapter: seamless_database_pool
  port: 3306
  username: app_user
  password: app_pass
  pool_adapter: mysql
    pool_weight: 0 # 0 means we only use master for writes if the controller action has been setup to use slaves
    - host:
      username: slave_login
      password: slave_pass

Do drop a line in the comments with any questions or feedback if you have experience with either SDP or Octopus as solutions for Rails slave database support!

Rails 3 Performance: Abysmal to Good to Great

So you’ve upgraded from Rails 2.x to Rails 3 and you’re not happy with the response times you’re seeing? Or you are considering the upgrade, but don’t want to close your eyes and step into the great unknown without having some idea what to expect from a performance standpoint? Well, here’s what.

Performance in Rails 2.2

Prior to upgrading, this action (one of the most commonly called in our application) averaged 225-250 ms.

Rails 3.0.4 Day 1

One our first day after upgrading, we found the same unmodified action averaging 480ms. Not cool.

Thus began the investigative project. Since New Relic was not working with Rails 3 views this week (seriously. that’s a whole different story), I (sigh) headed into the production logs, which I was happy to discover actually broke out execution times by partial. But there seemed to be an annoyingly inconsistent blip every time we called this action, where one of the partials (which varied from action to action) would have would have something like 250-300 ms allocated to it.

I casually mentioned this annoyance to Mr. Awesome (aka Jordan), who speculated that it could have something to do with garbage collection. I’d heard of Ruby GC issues from time to time in the past, but never paid them much mind since I assumed that, since we were already using Ruby Enterprise Edition, the defaults would likely be fine enough. But given my lack of other options, I decided to start the investigation. That’s when I discovered this document from those otherworldly documenters at Phusion, describing the memory settings that “Twitter uses” (quoted because it is probably years old) to run their app. Running low on alternatives, I gave it a shot. Here were our results:

304 Twitter mem settings

New average time: 280ms. Now that is change we can believe in! Compared with the default REE, we were running more than 40% faster, practically back to our 2.2 levels. (Bored of reading this post and want to go implement these changes immediately yourself? This is a great blog describing how. Thanks, random internet dude with broken commenting system!)

That was good. But it inspired Jordan to start tracking our garbage collection time from directly within New Relic (I don’t have a link to help ya there, but Google it — I assure you it’s possible, and awesome), and we discovered that even with these changes, we were still spending a good 25-30% of our time collecting garbage in our app (an improvement over the 50-60% from when we initially launched, but still). I wondered if we could get rid of GC altogether by pushing our garbage collection to happen between requests rather than during them?

Because every director will tell you that audiences love a good cliffhanger, I’ll leave that question for the reader to consider. Hint: after exploring the possibility, our action is now faster in Rails 3 than it had been in Rails 2. It’s all about the garbage, baby.

Rails 3 Unit and Integration Tests Slow: So Fix It

Another topic for which there is no shortage of Google results, but none that have really helped us to figure out why it takes upwards of three minutes for our tests to start. Finally reached my breaking point today and decided to track down what was behind the painful slowness of our test invocation.

The answer, for us, was the time it takes to purge and re-load the database when tests were starting. To figure this out, I simply ran

rake test --trace

And observed as we sat for two minutes on the db:schema:load. Ouch.

The good news is that, since we don’t use fixtures (chill runs down spine at the thought), there is really no need for us to purge our test DB every time we want to invoke tests. So, I decided to hack together a patch to allow tests to begin without the usual purge/load dog and pony show that goes with starting tests. If that’s the sort of thing that you’d be into, here’s the code you need to make it happen (in Rails 3, not sure how this might vary for Rails 2):

Rake::TaskManager.class_eval do
  def remove_task(task_name)


namespace :db do
  namespace :test do
    # Re-creating the DB every time we run tests sux...
    task :load do

Basically, the first bit is to undefined the existing “db:test:load” method, and the last part redefines db:test:load to do nothing. Add this as a mixin in your config/initializers directory and you should be golden.

If you do want to re-create your test database on occasion, you can still do that by running

  rake db:test:purge RAILS_ENV=test
  rake db:schema:load RAILS_ENV=test

Chances are that the RAILS_ENV isn’t even necessary there, but I don’t really feel like testing whether or not it deletes my main database atm.

Using this, our test start time dropped from about 3 minutes to 10 seconds. And that’s change that we can believe in.

Rails 3 Autoload Modules/Classes – 3 Easy Fixes

Judging by the number of queries on Stack Overflow, it is a very common problem for folks using Rails 3 that they are not getting the modules or classes from their lib directory loaded in Rails 3, especially in production. This leads to errors like “NoMethodError,” “No such file to load [file in your lib path],” and “uninitialized constant [thing you’re trying to load].” From the information I canvassed trying to solve the problem this morning, there are three common reasons (and one uncommon reason) that this can happen. I’ll go in order of descending frequency.

1. You haven’t included the lib directory in your autoload path

Rails 3 has been updated such that classes/modules (henceforth, C/M) are lazy loaded from the autoload paths as they are needed. A common problem, especially for the newly upgraded, is that the C/M you are trying to load isn’t in your autoload path. Easy enough fix:

config.autoload_paths += Dir["#{config.root}/lib/**/"]

This will autoload your lib directory and any subdirectories of it. Similarly, if you have model subdirectories, you may need to add

config.autoload_paths += Dir["#{config.root}/app/models/**/"]

To your application.rb file.

2. Your C/M is not named in the way Rails expects

Rails has opinions about what the name of your C/M should be, and if you name it differently, your C/M won’t be found. Specifically, the namespace for your C/M should match the directory structure that leads to it. So if you have a C/M with the filename “search.rb” in the lib/google directory, it’s name should be “Google::Search.” The name of the C/M should match the filename, and the name of the directory (in this case “Google”) should be part of the namespace for your module. See also this.

3. Your application is threadsafe.

This was one that was hard to find on SO or Google, but if you have configured your application to be threadsafe (done by default in production.rb), then the C/Ms you have, even if they exist in your autoload path, will not be defined until you require them in your application. According to the Rails docs, there is apparently something not threadsafe about automatically loading the C/Ms from their corresponding files. To workaround this, you can either require your individual library files before you use them, or comment out config.threadsafe!

4. (Esoteric) You have a model in a subdirectory, where the name of the subdirectory matches the name of the model.

Yes, this is another error we actually had when upgrading from Rails 2 to 3: as of Rails 3.0.4 there is a bug wherein, if you have a directory app/models/item and you have the file “item.rb” in your app/models/item directory, then you will get errors from Rails that your models are undefined (usually it picks the second model in the item subdirectory). We fixed this by just renaming our subdirectories where appropriate. Hopefully in one of the next versions of Rails this will get fixed and no longer be a possible problem.

Had other reasons why C/Ms failed to load for you? Do post below and we can gather up all the possibilities in one tidy location.